By Andrew Porterfield
Termites (genus Reticulitermes) are not just a pricey parasite– they additionally offer a vital eco-friendly role, breaking down cellulose material. Twelve species of termites are known in the U.S., and the species responsible for architectural damage cost Americans regarding $11 billion a year to regulate.
In the U.S., four Reticulitermes varieties (R. flavipes, R. tibialis, R. virginicus, as well as R. hesperus) and also one intrusive varieties (Coptotermes formosanus) are in charge of nearly all termite control efforts. Recognition of the right types in a structure is important for control, since the bugs have different swarm dimensions and foraging areas. Recognition likewise is very important for eco-friendly research studies on the termites (pest or non-pest), to weed through big sample dimensions.
Yet termite identification is not a very easy task. Three current techniques– morphology, follicle hydrocarbon profiles, as well as hereditary methods– all have their disadvantages. Morphological recognition calls for big example dimensions of reproductive or soldier castes, which are hard to acquire. Cuticle hydrocarbon accounts can range swarms, making types more challenging to identify. DNA sequencing works however time-consuming, and it needs expertise in molecular biology and also informatics to evaluate information.
To address this trouble, researchers from Texas A&M College, the University of Arkansas, and also the BASF Firm created a less complex genetic technique of identification that can differentiate five types of eastern termites in a matter of hrs. Their results were published today in the Journal of Economic Entomology.
Mark Janowiecki, Ph.D., led the study task during his doctoral operate at Texas A&M and is now an entomologist with the New Orleans Insect, Termite, and also Rat Control Board. He and his associates utilized a hereditary device called inter-simple series repeats (ISSR) to recognize the termites. ISSRs are fragments of DNA (concerning 100 to 3,000 base pairs of nucleotides), located in between the same “microsatellite” areas of DNA. These can offer an one-of-a-kind DNA “finger print” of a varieties.
The ISSR DNA is magnified from small example dimensions utilizing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The method counts on a primer (a tiny strip of DNA) that is a corresponding suit to the microsatellite area. This makes the strategy much easier, due to the fact that no series information for guide building and construction is required, and also more precise since ISSRs are located randomly in the genome.
“Our goal was to upgrade previous methods … for recognizing below ground termites using a straightforward device that could be run concurrently with microsatellite genotyping evaluation,” Janowiecki says. “At the time, one more trainee in the division was operating in our lab to run ISSRs for identification of fly varieties, so I decided to see if this approach can benefit termites. I located a paper that explained ISSR primers for various other termite species and also began to evaluate them for these varieties of Reticulitermes.”
The researchers screened numerous species of termites for 16S mitochondrial DNA (a certain segment of a ribosome discovered in mitochondria that is generally less variable than various other DNA) and also evaluated 10 ISSR guides. Other termites from the western U.S. and also Canada were also screened to try to find potential types overlap.
Of the 10 ISSRs, one was discovered that contained species-specific fragments with enough irregularity to differentiate varieties (R. flavipes, R. hageni, R. virginicus, R. tibialis, as well as R. malletei). Even though some overlap was located among the types, the researchers report that all five had “an analysis, species-specific piece.”
The ISSR approach can be conducted in about 11 hours, versus the 14 to 34 hrs needed for various other hereditary techniques. However, the writers caution that the technique might not work for all geographic regions. Some termite varieties in the western U.S. and some invasive termites have ISSR fragments similar to eastern varieties, which might cause confusion. “We screened other types, and also located that they at times had overlapping fragments to the focal varieties we consisted of. To consist of all varieties, it might be feasible to use several ISSRs, but at that point the ISSR method would certainly shed its performance,” Janowiecki states.
Andrew Porterfield is a writer, editor, and also communications consultant for academic establishments, firms, as well as nonprofits in the life scientific researches. He writes often regarding farming problems for the Genetic Proficiency Job. He is based in Camarillo, California. Follow him on Twitter at @AMPorterfield or visit his Facebook web page.